21 december 2012

Just Think- Sam Harris part 1 of 2



http://www.samharris.org

From the Free Press:

Sam Harris's first book, The End of Faith, ignited a worldwide debate about the From the Free Press:

Sam Harris's first book, The End of Faith, ignited a worldwide debate about the validity of religion. In the aftermath, Harris discovered that most people—from religious fundamentalists to non-believing scientists—agree on one point: Science has nothing to say on the subject of human values. Indeed, our failure to address questions of meaning and morality through science has now become the most common justification for religious faith. It is also the primary reason why so many secularists and religious moderates feel obligated to "respect" the hardened superstitions of their more devout neighbors. 

In this explosive new book, Sam Harris tears down the wall between scientific facts and human values, arguing that most people are simply mistaken about the relationship between morality and the rest of human knowledge. Harris urges us to think about morality in terms of human and animal well-being, viewing the experiences of conscious creatures as peaks and valleys on a "moral landscape." Because there are definite facts to be known about where we fall on this landscape, Harris foresees a time when science will no longer limit itself to merely describing what people do in the name of "morality"; in principle, science should be able to tell us what we ought to do to live the best lives possible.

Bringing a fresh perspective to age-old questions of right and wrong, and good and evil, Harris demonstrates that we already know enough about the human brain and its relationship to events in the world to say that there are right and wrong answers to the most pressing questions of human life. Because such answers exist, moral relativism is simply false—and comes at increasing cost to humanity. And the intrusions of religion into the sphere of human values can be finally repelled: for just as there is no such thing as Christian physics or Muslim algebra, there can be no Christian or Muslim morality.

Using his expertise in philosophy and neuroscience, along with his experience on the front lines of our "culture wars," Harris delivers a game-changing book about the future of science and about the real basis of human cooperation.

Just Think- Sam Harris part 2 of 2



http://www.samharris.org


Beautifully written as they were (the elegance of his prose is a distilled blend of honesty and clarity) there was little in Sam Harris's previous books that couldn't have been written by any of his fellow 'horsemen' of the 'new atheism'. This book is different, though every bit as readable as the other two. I was one of those who had unthinkingly bought into the hectoring myth that science can say nothing about morals. To my surprise, The Moral Landscape has changed all that for me. It should change it for philosophers too. Philosophers of mind have already discovered that they can't duck the study of neuroscience, and the best of them have raised their game as a result. Sam Harris shows that the same should be true of moral philosophers, and it will turn their world exhilaratingly upside down. As for religion, and the preposterous idea that we need God to be good, nobody wields a sharper bayonet than Sam Harris.

— Richard Dawkins, author of The Selfish Gene, The God Delusion, and The Greatest Show On Earth

First we are told that we are lumbering robots with selfish genes at the helm. And now we are told that biology determines our values, not only what is good for us, but what ought to be good for us. Isn't there anything sacred?! No, and thank goodness. A hallelujah to Sam Harris for boldly going where few have dared go. The Moral Landscape is both a celebration of why clarity of reason is our most glorious weapon, and why even age old debates that have gone into hibernation ought to be awakened and challenged.

— Marc Hauser, Harvard College Professor, author of Moral Minds.

Reading Sam Harris is like drinking water from a cool stream on a hot day. He has the rare ability to frame arguments that are not only stimulating, they are downright nourishing, even if you don't always agree with him! In this new book he argues from a philosophical and a neurobiological perspective that science can and should determine morality. His discussions will provoke secular liberals and religious conservatives alike, who jointly argue from different perspectives that there always will be an unbridgeable chasm between merely knowing what is and discerning what should be. As was the case with Harris' previous books, readers are bound to come away with previously firm convictions about the world challenged, and a vital new awareness about the nature and value of science and reason in our lives.

— Lawrence M. Krauss, Foundation Professor and Director of the ASU Origins Project at Arizona State University. author of The Physics of Star Trek and Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science.

Sam Harris- Game, Set, Match.

7 december 2012

Chris Christie, Jon Stewart Interview - New Jersey Governor and 'Daily Show' Host Spar Over Republican Philosophy 1

Chris Christie, Jon Stewart Interview - New Jersey Governor and 'Daily Show' Host Spar Over Republican Philosophy 2

Chris Christie, Jon Stewart Interview - New Jersey Governor and 'Daily Show' Host Spar Over Republican Philosophy 3

6 december 2012

If you want to be awe inspired..Christopher Hitchens

Folkpartiets partiledare, utbildningsminister Jan Björklund, håller jultal.

Vänsterpartiets partiledare Jonas Sjöstedt håller ett jultal

Miljöpartiets partisekreterare Anders Wallner håller jultal.

Jonas Inde har bytt spriten mot ett riktigt hundliv

Lyssna: P4 Extra med Lotta Bromé: Hela intervjun med dagens gäst Jonas Inde



Jonas Inde skulle aldrig använda sin son som ett argument för att inte ta ett återfall i sin alkoholism. I P4 Extra berättar han om att lägga spriten på hyllan och skaffa sig en hund som inte gillar att han har sin son hemma ...
Komikern och hundälskaren Jonas Inde är tisdagens gäst i P4 Extra med Lotta Bromé.
Jonas Inde slog igenom som komiker och manusförfattare för tjugo år sedan med humorkollektivet Killinggänget.
Under hösten har han varit aktuell i tv-serien Jonas löfte på UR Play - en mycket naken och självutlämnande berättelse om Jonas liv i dag – och om den tuffa tillvaron att leva med dubbla diagnoser, alkoholism samt bipolär sjukdom.
- Jag vill inte vara den som gnäller över vad det heter men jag tycker att det är synd att det heter bipolär sjukdom och inte manodepressivitet. Det senare är enklare att förstå vad det betyder säger Jonas Inde i P4 Extra.
För ett år sedan blev han pappa och sin kreativa kraft läEger han i dag bland annat på låtskrivande i konsert- och skivaktuella bandet Hundarna.

Christopher Hitchens and John Haldane at Oxford - We Don't Do God?



Does religion have a place in the public square? With it, can we have peace? Without it, can we have dignity? Join Christopher Hitchens, world-famous British journalist and anti-theist, and John Haldane, leading Scottish philosopher, commentator, and broadcaster, in a discussion on rights, dignity, faith and public life. The Veritas Forum at Oxford, 2010.

5 december 2012

PIANO/GUITAR BLUES - 12-12-04 and Tristan Tzara Proclamation Without Pretension






Tristan Tzara Proclamation Without Pretension 

Cinema Calendar Of The Abstract Heart - Tristan Tzara  


the fibres give in to your starry warmtha lamp is called green and seescarefully stepping into a season of feverthe wind has swept the rivers' magicand i've perforated the nerveby the clear frozen lakehas snapped the sabrebut the dance round terrace tablesshuts in the shock of the marble shuddernew sober


Tristan Tzara 


 Tristan Tzara 
Proclamation Without Pretension    Art is going to sleep for a new world to be born"ART"-parrot word-replaced by DADA,PLESIOSAURUS, or handkerchief


The talent THAT CAN BE LEARNED makes thepoet a druggist TODAY the criticismof balances no longer challenges with resemblances


Hypertrophic painters hyperaes-theticized and hypnotized by the hyacinthsof the hypocritical-looking muezzins


CONSOLIDATE THE HARVEST OF EX-ACT CALCULATIONS


Hypodrome of immortal guarantees: there isno such thing as importance there is no transparenceor appearance


MUSICIANS SMASH YOUR INSTRUMENTSBLIND MEN take the stage


THE SYRINGE is only for my understanding. I write because it isnatural exactly the way I piss the way I'm sick


ART NEEDS AN OPERATION


Art is a PRETENSION warmed by theTIMIDITY of the urinary basin, the hysteria bornin THE STUDIO


We are in search ofthe force that is direct pure soberUNIQUE we are in search of NOTHINGwe affirm the VITALITY of every IN-STANT


the anti-philosophy of spontaneous acrobatics


At this moment I hate the man who whispersbefore the intermission-eau de cologne-sour theatre. THE JOYOUS WIND


If each man says the opposite it is because he isright


Get ready for the action of the geyser of our blood-submarine formation of transchromatic aero-planes, cellular metals numbered inthe flight of images


above the rules of theand its control


BEAUTIFUL


It is not for the sawed-off impswho still worship their navel


Tristan Tzara 



The Great Lament Of My Obscurity Three    where we live the flowers of the clocks catch fire and the plumes encircle the brightness in the distant sulphur morning the cows lick the salt liliesmy sonmy sonlet us always shuffle through the colour of the worldwhich looks bluer than the subway and astronomywe are too thinwe have no mouthour legs are stiff and knock togetherour faces are formeless like the starscrystal points without strength burned basilicamad : the zigzags cracktelephonebite the rigging liquefythe arcclimbastralmemorytowards the north through its double fruitlike raw fleshhunger fire blood


Tristan Tzara 



To Make A Dadist Poem    Take a newspaper.Take some scissors.Choose from this paper an article the length you want to make your poem.Cut out the article.Next carefully cut out each of the words that make up this article and put them all in a bag.Shake gently.Next take out each cutting one after the other.Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag.The poem will resemble you.And there you are--an infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd.


Tristan Tzara 



Vegetable Swallow    two smiles meet towardsthe child-wheel of my zealthe bloody baggage of creaturesmade flesh in physical legends-lives


the nimble stags storms cloud overrain falls under the scissors ofthe dark hairdresser-furiouslyswimming under the clashing arpeggios


in the machine's sap grassgrows around with sharp eyeshere the share of our caressesdead and departed with the waves


gives itself up to the judgment of timeparted by the meridian of hairsnon strikes in our handsthe spices of human pleasures


Tristan Tzara 

29 november 2012

Don Tapscott - Four principles for the open world

Julia Sweeney has The Talk



Despite her best efforts, comedian Julia Sweeney is forced to tell a little white lie when her 8-year-old begins learning about frog reproduction -- and starts to ask some very smart questions.

23 november 2012

TEDxObserver - Rick Falkvinge - The Pirate Party - the politics of protest



In 2006, Rick Falkvinge, a Swedish software entrepreneur, founded a new political party 

centred around the subjects of file sharing, copyright and patents. He called it the Pirate 

Party and it rose to prominence after a government crackdown on the file-sharing site, 

the Pirate Bay. Since then, the Pirate Party has swept Europe and beyond to become an 

international political movement, active in 40 different countries with representation in 

the European parliament.



In Sweden, it's the largest party for voters under the age of 30 with 25% of the vote, and 

in September 2011, the German Pirate Party won an unprecedented 8.9 per cent of the 

vote and now has several members in the Berlin state parliament. Focused on the subjects 

of government transparency, internet privacy and copyright law, the Pirate Party hosts 

Wikileaks on its servers and uses new technology to leverage political power in new and 

interesting ways. In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine called Falkvinge one of the top 100

 global thinkers.




About TEDx, x = independently organized event



In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events 

that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks 

video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. 

These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized 

TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but

 individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)



Pratshowen 5





PRATSHOWEN Femte avsnittet om Sverigedemokraterna, bråket och rasismen. Har 

gammelpolitikerna inte tagit debatten på nätet? 

Vem är det som spekulerar om när Elisabet Höglund ska dö? Och är sociala medier 

rätt ställe att ventilera hur dåligt man mår? 

Morgan Larsson, P3 och Adam Cwejman, Timbro med programledare Sara 

Wennerblom 

Arén om debatterna på nätet.


http://www.svtplay.se/klipp/595048/pratshowen-5/?tab=undefined&sida=1

20 november 2012

Erik Almqvist är glömsk - Från Expressen



Från Expressen

The Unstoppable Binary Bros

NASA Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 - 2014



This marvelous animated simulation depicts the proposed test flight of the NASA Orion spacecraft in 2014.

During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral in Florida, perform two orbits and reach an altitude higher than any achieved by a spacecraft intended for human use since 1973.

14 november 2012

Television 1939 RCA Early Introduction to TV


"Early promotional film introducing TV to the American public, probably coordinated with the rollout of scheduled broadcasting at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Shows scenes of television production at the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) studios at Rockefeller Center, New York City, using equipment manufactured by NBC's corporate parent RCA."

Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television
In its early stages of development, television employed a combination of optical, mechanical and electronic technologies to capture, transmit and display a visual image. By the late 1920s, however, those employing only optical and electronic technologies were being explored...
The first images transmitted electrically were sent by early mechanical fax machines, including the pantelegraph, developed in the late nineteenth century. The concept of electrically powered transmission of television images in motion was first sketched in 1878 as the telephonoscope, shortly after the invention of the telephone...
The idea of using scanning to transmit images was put to actual practical use in 1881 in the pantelegraph, through the use of a pendulum-based scanning mechanism... scanning... is the concept of "rasterization", the process of converting a visual image into a stream of electrical pulses.
In 1884 Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, a 23-year-old university student in Germany, patented the first electromechanical television system which employed a scanning disk, a spinning disk with a series of holes spiraling toward the center, for rasterization. The holes were spaced at equal angular intervals such that in a single rotation the disk would allow light to pass through each hole and onto a light-sensitive selenium sensor which produced the electrical pulses. As an image was focused on the rotating disk, each hole captured a horizontal "slice" of the whole image.
Nipkow's design would not be practical until advances in amplifier tube technology became available. The device was only useful for transmitting still "halftone" images—represented by equally spaced dots of varying size—over telegraph or telephone lines. Later designs would use a rotating mirror-drum scanner to capture the image and a cathode ray tube (CRT) as a display device, but moving images were still not possible, due to the poor sensitivity of the selenium sensors. In 1907 Russian scientist Boris Rosing became the first inventor to use a CRT in the receiver of an experimental television system. He used mirror-drum scanning to transmit simple geometric shapes to the CRT.
Using a Nipkow disk, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird succeeded in demonstrating the transmission of moving silhouette images in London in 1925, and of moving, monochromatic images in 1926... in 1927 Baird also invented the world's first video recording system, "Phonovision": by modulating the output signal of his TV camera down to the audio range, he was able to capture the signal on a 10-inch wax audio disc using conventional audio recording technology...
In 1926, Hungarian engineer Kálmán Tihanyi designed a television system...
By 1927, Russian inventor Léon Theremin developed a mirror-drum-based television system...
Also in 1927, Herbert E. Ives of Bell Labs transmitted moving images from a 50-aperture disk producing 16 frames per minute...
In 1927, Philo Farnsworth made the world's first working television system with electronic scanning of both the pickup and display devices, which he first demonstrated to the press on 1 September 1928.
WRGB claims to be the world's oldest television station, tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on January 13, 1928, broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY, under the call letters W2XB...
In 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were carried by cable to television stations in Berlin and Leipzig where the public could view the games live...
On 2 November 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular high-definition service...
In 1936, Kálmán Tihanyi described the principle of plasma display, the first flat panel display system.
Mexican inventor Guillermo González Camarena also played an important role in early television...
Although television became more familiar in the United States with the general public at the 1939 World's Fair, the outbreak of World War II prevented it from being manufactured on a large scale until after the end of the war. True regular commercial television network programming did not begin in the U.S. until 1948...

18 oktober 2012

The 99 Percent: 'Vanguard' Trailer


In "The 99 Percent," Vanguard correspondent Christof Putzel moves into Zuccotti Park to explore the Occupy Wall Street movement from the inside. Produced by Craig and Brent Renaud.

"Vanguard" is Current TV's no-limits documentary series whose award-winning correspondents put themselves in extraordinary situations to immerse viewers in global issues that have a large social significance. Unlike sound-bite driven reporting, the show's correspondents, Adam Yamaguchi, Christof Putzel and Mariana van Zeller, serve as trusted guides who take viewers on in-depth real life adventures in pursuit of some of the world's most important stories.

For more, go to:


http://current.com/vanguard

JOHN CALE WEEK IN WEEK OUT HEROIN WALES AND ME DRUGS AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY



                        ....John Cale Week In Week Out..Heroin Wales and me.....

"Rock star John Cale is no stranger to drugs - years of cocaine, heroin and alcohol abuse 

could have killed him.
Now the former Velvet Underground star returns to Wales to find heroin causing havoc in our communities.

He meets addicts, drugs workers and politicians - and asks why help is sometimes hard to find."

12 oktober 2012

Chaos and Butterfly Effect - Sixty Symbols


The butterfly effect is associated with the unpredictable world of chaos... 

Two of our physicists have a chat about it.

They are Laurence Eaves and Mark Fromhold.

Visit our website at http://www.sixtysymbols.com/

Granular Dynamics - Sixty Symbols


Shaking grains and interesting physics.

Visit our website at http://www.sixtysymbols.com/

Saturn - Sixty Symbols


We take a look at Saturn and news that it has another ring. 
More astronomy and planets at 

http://www.sixtysymbols.com/

Richard Dawkins - Militant atheism


Biologist Richard Dawkins launches into a full-on appeal for atheists to make public their beliefs and to aggressively fight the incursion of religion into politics and education. Dawkins' scornful tone drew strongly mixed reactions from the audience; some stood and applauded his courage. Others wondered whether his strident approach could do more harm than good. Dawkins went on to publish The God Delusion and become perhaps the world's best-known atheist.

http://www.ted.com

4 oktober 2012

Pink Floyd—The Wall



Pink Floyd—The Wall is a 1982 British live-action/animated musical film directed by Alan Parker based on the 1979 Pink Floyd album The Wall. The screenplay was written by Pink Floyd vocalist and bassist Roger Waters. The film is highly metaphorical and is rich in symbolic imagery and sound. It features very little dialogue and is mainly driven by the music of Pink Floyd.

The film contains fifteen minutes of elaborate animation sequences by the political cartoonist and illustrator Gerald Scarfe.


30 september 2012

Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Hitchens from ALOUDla on Vimeo.

Christopher Hitchens: God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything In 

conversation with Tim Rutten ALOUD at the Los Angeles Public Library June 4, 2007 


27 september 2012

George Carlin on Our Similarities

-
George Carlin on little things we share. From his 1992 special Jammin' in New York.
http://www.HaphazardStuff.com
If not 'THE', certainly one the best comedians ever. 
1937-2008


23 september 2012

Penn Jillette: An Atheist's Guide to the 2012 Election


Penn Jillette rates the various candidates for the U.S. Presidency from the perspective of 

an atheist.

Stephen Wolfram on Computation and the Future of Mankind at Singularity Summit 2011


The Singularity Summit 2011 was a TED-style two-day event at the historic 92nd Street Y in New York City. The next event will take place in San Francisco, on October 13 & 14, 2012. For more information, visit:
http://www.singularitysummit.com

19 september 2012

Sweden At War 6/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Sweden At War 5/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Sweden At War 4/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Sweden At War 3/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Sweden At War 2/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Sweden At War 1/6 War for Peace - Krig för Fred

Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet.



"...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, mål verktyg, målet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemoet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ettkratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet...""...Socialdemokratin är en existentialism, kollektivismen ett verktyg, målet är individens frihet..."








Shyam Sankar: The rise of human-computer cooperation


Brute computing force alone can’t solve the world’s problems. Data mining innovator Shyam Sankar explains why solving big problems (like catching terrorists or identifying huge hidden trends) is not a question of finding the right algorithm, but rather the right symbiotic relationship between computation and human creativity.

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore: The mysterious workings of the adolescent brain


Why do teenagers seem so much more impulsive, so much less self-aware than grown-ups? Cognitive neuroscientist Sarah-Jayne Blakemore compares the prefrontal cortex in adolescents to that of adults, to show us how typically "teenage" behavior is caused by the growing and developing brain.

31 augusti 2012

The Fuck-It Point - Documentary On Our Time





A film about the dark side of civilization, why we should bring it down and why most civilized people don’t.
[THE FUCK-IT POINT]
‘When you have had enough. When you decide to take matter into your own hands and don’t care what’s going to happen to you. When you know that from now on you will resist with whatever tactic you think is most effective.’
Support distribution and future projects: http://savagerevival.chipin.com/

subMedia.tv - ITEOTWAWKIAIFF- BATTLEGROUND MONTREAL

subMedia.tv - ITEOTWAWKIAIFF-GOLDEN DAWN’S ULTRA-VIOLENCE

subMedia.tv - ITEOTWAWKIAIFF-THIS IS ATHENS

subMedia.tv - ACAB (ALL COPS ARE BASTARDS)

28 augusti 2012

Video visar exakt vad som händer inuti vår hjärna







Video visar exakt vad som händer inuti vår hjärna

Ny bildteknik visar hjärnans ständiga förnyelse: Med hjälp av en ny teknik, har forskare skapat spektakulära videofilmer som visar hur proteinerna transporteras inuti nervceller i vår hjärna.
PUBLICERAD 24 AUGUSTI 2012 - 13:30 – UPPDATERAD 24 AUGUSTI 2012 - 16:57
Artikeltexten fortsätter längre nerHoppa till artikeltexten
Det är en häpnadsväckande inblick i det inre arbetet i hjärnan. De amerikanska forskarna använde fluorescerande proteiner från en manet för att lysa upp insidan av en nervcell i hjärnan och på så sätt fånga filmsekvenser som visar hur proteinerna, kroppens byggstenar, transporteras i cellen. I videon här kan de ses som svarta prickar som flyttar runt inuti cellen.
"Nu kan vi se det vi vet"
- Din hjärna plockas ner bit för bit och byggs ihop igen varje dag. Om en vecka från idag, kommer din hjärna att bestå av helt andra proteiner än den gör i dag. Den här videon visar processen. Vi har vetat att det sker, men nu kan vi se när det sker, säger forskaren Don Arnold, på University of Southern California.
Den nya bildtekniken användes för att kasta nytt ljus över hur proteiner dirigeras till en av de två typerna av avdelningar inuti en nervcell i hjärnan: axonet eller dendriter. Axonet är den del av cellen som ansvarar för att sända ut elektriska signaler till andra celler i kroppen, medan dendriterna tar emot signaler från andra celler.
- Det har varit känt i många decennier att proteiner dirigeras till den ena eller den andra avdelningen. Men vi kunde inte förstå hur den dirigeringen gick till förrän vi faktiskt kunde se när proteinerna rör sig till den ena avdelningen eller den andra, säger Sarmad Al -Bassam på USC, huvudförfattare till studien.
Mycket svårt att se
- Det är väldigt väldigt smått det här. Om en nervcell var så stor som globen skulle den kunna ha en nervtråd (axon) lika tjock som en trädgårdsslang som nådde till Barcelona och sedan förgrenade sig i norra Spanien. Samtidigt skulle den ha andra nervtrådar, dendriter som täckte hela Storstockholm, säger Lars Olson, professor i neurobiologi på Karolinska Institutet.
För att proteiner snabbt ska kunna transporteras runt i kroppen så får de lift de med vesikler - mycket små blåsor somfärdas fram och tillbaka i axonet. Man kan jämföra dem med mikroskopiska lastbilar som nervcellen laddar med olika proteiner och skickar ut med olika uppgifter i kroppen, på små motorvägar inuti axonet.
- De sänds ut med proteiner till de yttersta ändarna av nervcellens nervtrådar och samlar även upp information där ute, som transporteras tillbaka till dendriterna i nervcskroppen. Det som är nytt här är att forskarna kan visa den sorteringsmekanism som finns i mynningen till axonet. I videon kan vi se hur blåsorna med proteiner som ska till en dendrit stannar upp ett tag om de istället råkar komma till axonet och sedan vänder för att hitta rätt. Det är inte blåsorna som vet vart de ska utan det är den här "silen" i axonet som avgör vilket protein som ska få komma igenom spärren och fortsätta ut i axonet, säger Lars Olson.
Ny förståelse för hjärnans utveckling
Genom att använda det fluorescerande proteinet GFP (green fluorescent protein) från maneter har forskare kunnat märka upp och se proteiner inuti celler, inklusive hjärnceller, sen mitten av 90-talet. År 2008 fick tre forskare ta emot nobelpriset för upptäckten och utvecklingen av GFP.
Men problemet när man lyst upp proteinernas vägar på det här sättet har varit att det finns flera överlappande vägar i cellen, vilket gör det svårt att se proteinernas rörelser i en enda cell. I den här nya forskningen löste man det genom en ny teknik där man lyckades ladda ett stort antal blåsor med samma protein och få dem att börja sin vandring i cellen samtidigt genom att först dämma upp systemet. Blåsorna laddade forskarna dels med proteiner, som antingen skulle till dendriter eller till axonet, och dels med GFP. Och när man sedan släppte fördämningen, med hjälp av ett speciellt protein, kunde man lättare följa den här samlade mängden blåsor och proteiner, och hur sorteringsmekanismen gick till just där axonet utgår från nervcellkroppen.
Enligt forskarna kan den här nya inblicken leda till bättre förståelse för hur vår hjärna fungerar.
- Det här är överraskande resultat. Forskarna har här på ett elegant sätt visat hur proteinerna rör sig i en nervcell och sorteras in i - eller bort från - axonet. Det kan även öka förståelsen för hur sjukdomar skadar nervceller, säger Lars Olson.